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Vortrag des Herrn Botschafters GENG Wenbing an der Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz (FHNW)
2019/02/13

Am 12.02.2019 nahm Herr Botschafter Geng Wenbing auf Einladung an der Veranstaltung «Insight China» an der FHNW teil und hielt dabei einen Vortrag über Errungenschaften der 40jährigen Reform- und Öffnungspolitik Chinas. Im Anschluss beantwortete Herr Botschafter Geng die vom Publikum inkl. Studenten der Hochschule gestellten Fragen. Im Folgenden ist der Vortragstext auf Englisch zu lesen:

Dear Prof. Dr. Peter Abplanalp, dear Prof. Dr. Markus Freiburghaus, dear Prof. Michael Jeive, my dear guests and students,
It is my great pleasure to participate in Insight China and exchange with you on the topic of 40-Years Reform and Opening Up of China. The University of Applied Science and Arts Northwestern Switzerland(dt. Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz, Abk. FHNW) collaborates and exchanges with many Chinese universities. Over decades, Professor Dr. Ruedi Nützi has been traveling frequently between China and Switzerland, witnessed almost the whole progress of China's reform and opening up. As I listened to his speech on Sino-Swiss relationship here on the same campus two weeks ago, China's reform and opening up was mentioned as well. My talk today, as required by the university, will focus on the achievements China has made through the reform and opening up. Nevertheless, as I see it, 40-years reform and opening up has not only bring us the achievements to cheer, but also lessons to learn, and the twists and turns throughout the quest for development. This year marks the 70th anniversary of the establishment of the People's Republic of China. I want to take the opportunity to shed lights to the first 30 years after the establishment of the new China,which is before the reform and opening up, and guide you briefly through China's modern history. In this way, you will gain a relatively comprehensive and coherent understanding about China.

First of all, I want you to know that China has created a splendid civilization in history. China has made remarkable contributions to mankind, including the four great inventions. Entering modern history, during 1840 to 1949, China, ravaged by war, was plunged into the darkness of foreign aggression for more than 100 years. The homeland was torn apart and the peoplehad no means to live. To be in detail, during that time, most Chinese people are wrapped in rugs and struggled for food in poverty and despair.The average longevity merely reached 30 years. However, the 5000-year history of the country has raised and nurtured Chinese civilization and extraordinary children who woke up at the most critical moment of the Chinese nation. The Communist Party of China was born and led the Chinese people to the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949. During these 70 years, the first 30 years has laid solid foundation for the   growth of the following 40 years. Thebasic political system has been established, and comparatively complete industrial system, defense system and science and technology systems wereformulated. I would like to particularly point out that the newly established People's Republic of China had to face harsh international situations. On the one hand, the world was divided into two camps. The US and the former USSR(Union of Soviet Socialist Russia), seeking hegemony respectively, sent the world into the cold war. On the other hand, The US and its western allies took long term policy to isolate China. Apart from the international environment, China's domestic policies had made some major mistakes. ExtremeLeft Thoughts and policy launched the so-called the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. China deviated from its development path and from the world's mainstream. Almost the entire decade of golden time was lost.
 
In 1978, Mr. Deng Xiaoping, China's then leader, decisively terminated the left extremism policy. China has entered a new era to reform the domestic policy and to open its door to the world. Since then, China has adhered to the policy of reform and opening up until today, achieving world renowned progresses and achievements.
Over 40 years, China has maintained average annual GDP growth at 9.5%. Foreign trade has registered an average annual growth at 14.5%. Despite the Chinese economy shifting gears since 2012, its GDP growth has sustained at 7.1% annually, by far outpaced the world average annual growth of 2.8% at the same period. Since 2006, China has maintained an increase of 1.5 trillion US Dollars in every two years in terms of total economic volume. Although its comprehensive strengthen still face a gap between the developed US and European countries, China is now ranking world number two when talking about the economic volume. In recent years, China hasendeavored to adjust its economic structure, optimize its growth model, and shift economic focus from quantitative growth onto qualitative growth to ensure a sustainable economic development.Indeed, China has substantially advanced qualitative growth and has become one of the most dynamic countries in the field of R&D research and innovation. To show you some examples, China has developed high-end equipment of rail way transportation represented by high speed rail, telecommunication, smart phones and power grids. China possesses cutting-edge technologies including the UHV technology, smart grid, and the independent intellectual property rights of 5G. Hydro-, thermal-, the fourth generation nuclear power generation, and almost all the world's largest engineering projects have been developed in China, spanning from the high speed railways, the Hongkong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge,to stealth fighters, large aircraft, quantum communications, high-performance computing, andBeidou Navigation Satellite.

Dear students,the biggest achievement China has made during these 40 years is far more than the above. I would like to take the opportunity to let you know that the Chinese government has lifted 740 million people out of poverty. This figure is based on Chinese standard. According to the World Bank, China has unlocked 850 million people from the chain of poverty, accounting for roughly 80% of the world poverty total. In this aspect, China is undisputedly the most successful country in the world. Currently, China is dedicated to eradicate poverty for the last remaining 30 million people. By 2020, China will become a country that has completely eradicated absolute poverty, a miracle of mankind that should be record in history books.

China's development over these 40 years is tremendous. 40 years ago, China's economy scale accounts for merely one twentieth of the US and the GDP per capita was $155. Comparatively, in 1978, in Sub-Sahara African countries, commonly seen as the poorest region in the world, the GDP per capita was $490, more than three times higher than that of China. 40 years later, China's GDP has grown from $149.5 billion in 1978 to $13 trillion. The economy scale has expanded 225 times. In the meantime, GDP per capita has risen more than 60 times from $155 to $10000. Thanks to the reform and opening up, China, with a population amounts to 1.4billion, has realized sustainable economic take-off growth and the living standard and life quality of people have been greatly improved.

China's development has also given momentum to the global economy. Since the financial crisis in 2008, China has been a major driver of economic recovery in the world. Between the year of 2008 and 2012, China's annual contribution to the world economic growth exceeded 20%. In the last five years, China's annual contribution to the world economic growth has exceeded 30%, making itself the major engine of the world economy.

China's contribution to the world is not limited to the economy. In international affairs, China has demonstrated responsibility and undertaking as a big country. Along with the increase of the barriers to international trade and investment, unilateralism, protectionism, and populism are gradually spreading and posing serious challenges to the international order. China adheres to all-round efforts in opening-up; upholds the principle of achieving shared growth through consultation and collaboration; pursues international cooperation on the Belt and Road Initiative; and is committed to establishing the new type of international relations, featuring mutual respect, equity and justice, and win-win cooperation. To address the complexities and challenges the world is confronted with, China's choice is to firstly make a good job on its own affairs. We unswervingly seek the remedy accordingly to address the problems that have emerged in the process of economic globalization. Development imbalances need to be resolved through further development. We can only try to make the pie bigger while looking for ways to share it in a more equitable way. The last thing we should do is to stop making the pie and engage in a futile debate on how to divide it.

What's the further development of China? This is what Western societies are much concerned. Domestically, China aims to achieve two goals, which are the two centennial dreams of China. The first one is, by the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party of China in 2021, relieving the remaining 30 million people from poverty and building China into a moderately prosperous society in all respects. Our second goal is by the 100thanniversary of the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 2029, building China into a modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious and beautiful.Internationally, China has also two goals. One is to build a new type of international relationship featuring mutual respects, equality and justice, and win-win collaboration as the core values. The other is to promote the construction of the community with shared future for mankind, featuring lasting peace, universal security, common prosperity, openness and inclusiveness, as well as a clean and beautiful world. In both courses, China will play a role as a promoter of world peace, a contributor to global development, and a defender of the international order. To sum up, in the next 30 years, China is to rise as a real giant and powerful country; and as China becomes stronger, it will make even greater contributions to the peace and development of the world, and to the progress and prosperity of humanity.

Thank you!

 

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